Waterboost has been carefully developed by the same team that created the Sonic Reflex Sound Therapy System and the Vapureyes. The Waterboost is manufactured by local engineering companies and then checked and assembled by ourselves to ensure the quality of every unit.
This website does not sell Waterboost Units, it is provided for educational purposes only. We have enlisted the help of various Private and Government Agencies as well as research establishments to assist us in providing further evidence of the products 'efficacy'.
We have no desire to fall foul of Advertising Standards or any other agency but we do require that more helpful communications are necessary and that more avenues are available to prove the systems 'efficacy'.
At this moment we are unclear as to whether an engineers report or consumer survey is sufficient or whether an expensive and time consuming peer review is required before we can 'legally' say anything about the Waterboost product. One thing is for sure, there are over half a dozen competitors in the UK who have no scientific proof of their products 'efficacy.'
Further down this page are a large number of scientific papers explaining how and why it all works.
Hydrogen and Oxygen Injection
The following technical description is not intended to form part of any efficiency claims, it is for information purposes only and is presented in order to explain why and how the system works.
Hydrogen and Oxygen are generated, on demand, from water, using an electrolysis cell fitted to an alternator. The Hydrogen and Oxygen gas can be added to any internal combustion engine via the air inlet manifold, resulting in faster rates of initiation and subsequent propagation of flames across the whole combustion range.
The enhancement of flame initiation and subsequent flame propagation reduces the Ignition delay and combustion period in both spark ignition (eg. Petrol) and compression ignition (eg. Diesel) engines.
The chain reaction initiated by the Hydrogen and Oxygen will cause a simultaneous ignition of all the primary fuel. As it all ignites at once, no flame front can exist and without it there is no pressure wave to create knock.
Unburned hydrocarbons, CO and NO, in the exhaust are either eliminated or drastically reduced and at the same R.P.M. the engine produces more torque from less fuel.
The near absence of carbon monoxide and unburnt hydrocarbons confirms a very complete and much faster burn. Cooler exhaust temperatures show that more work is taken out during the power stroke. More torque from less fuel at the same engine speeds verifies that higher pressure from a faster burn, acting through a longer effective power stroke, produces more torque and thus more work from less fuel.
The enhanced fuel/air/hydrogen/oxygen mix burns upto 10 times faster however this rapid burn is so fast that the resulting power stroke and exhaust stroke will be much cooler, resulting in significantly less nitrous oxides (NOx)
Reducing hydrocarbons and CO causes a slight rise in the percentage of CO2 in the exhaust, but as less fuel is used, the actual quantity of CO2 produced is reduced by roughly the same ratio as the savings in fuel. In brief, noxious gas is almost eliminated and greenhouse gas is decreased in proportion to the reduction in fuel consumption.
The Waterboost System is also being tested as a suitable fuel source for many other industrial applications.
As well as a fuel saving device, hydrogen helps to reduce harmful emissions and increases the oxygen levels your car produces. Carbon Dioxide is fuel for plants, its is NOX and Carbon Monoxide that poison our environment and under the right conditions you can almost eliminate the production of these noxious gases. Any profits from the sale of these units will be used to fund ongoing research into new fuel technologies and off-grid solutions.
Test Vehicles - Water Power Test Results
This video shows the system doubling the mpg on a Mercedes 2.0 Petrol Estate, this video is not intended to mislead customers, it is presented as a guideline, similar results may not be achievable on all vehicles.
A Peer Reviewed Scientific Trial of the Waterboost will be available to view online soon.
The following scientific report was produced by the Society of Automotive Engineers in Bulgaria:
Abstract: "Experiments were carried out to evaluate the influence of the addition of hydrogenoxygen mixture (obtained from electrochemically decomposed water) to the inlet air of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine.
Addition of hydrogen to the intake or delivery into the cylinder of diesel engine can improve combustion process due to superior combustion characteristics of hydrogen in comparison to conventional diesel fuels.
Presented paper describes the dynamometer test results of a study where a small amount of hydrogen-oxygen mixture, produced by hydrogen-oxygen generator is added to the intake of a diesel engine."
Read more about the University of Bulgaria
Another excellent research paper:Download Australian Research Paper
The above Formal Peer Reviewed Research Paper was written by S. Bari, M. Mohammad Esmaeil from the Sustainable Energy Centre, School of Advanced Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095, Australia
"...hydrogen as an additive to enhance the conventional diesel engine performance has been investigated by several researchers and the outcomes are very promising...Results show that by using 4.84%, 6.06%, and 6.12% total diesel equivalent of H2/O2 mixture the brake thermal efficiency increased from 32.0% to 34.6%, 32.9% to 35.8% and 34.7% to 36.3% at 19 kW, 22 kW and 28 kW, respectively. These resulted in 15.07%, 15.16% and 14.96% fuel savings. The emissions of HC, CO2 and CO decreased..."
Read more about the University of South Australia.
There are literally volumes of technical papers and scientific research that validates the use of HHO and Hydrogen Injection technology with both gas (spark ignited) and diesel (compression ignited) engines as a means of reducing engine exhaust emissions and improving the burn characteristics of petroleum based fuels.
The J.P.L. concept has unquestionably demonstrated that the addition of small quantities of gaseous hydrogen to the primary gasoline significantly reduces CO and NOx exhaust emissions while improving engine thermal efficiency.
- California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Lab; Pasadena, California, 1974
Using hydrogen as a combustion stimulant makes it possible for other fuels to meet future requirements for lower exhaust emissions in California and an increasing number of additional States.
- Roy McAlister, P.E., President of American Hydrogen Association
Nothing I have learned so far has lessened my belief that the benefits of using electrolysis units to supply hydrogen to most types of internal combustion engines are both real and considerable.
- George Vosper, Professor of Engineering, June 1998
We present the following selection of papers, most of which have been written for the Society of Automotive Engineers, as credible evidence of this technology. The papers are presented in no particular order. Links to the original documents are provided and some documents have been archived on BurnHydrox.com servers where possible.
Hydrogen-enrichment-concept preliminary evaluation
Author(s): Ecklund, E. E.
A hydrogen-enriched fuels concept for automobiles is described and evaluated in terms of fuel consumption and engine exhaust emissions through multicylinder (V-8) automotive engine/hydrogen generator tests, single cylinder research engine (CFR) tests, and hydrogen-generator characterization tests. Analytical predictions are made of the fuel consumption and NO/sub x/ emissions which would result from anticipated engine improvements. The hydrogen-gas generator, which was tested to quantify its thermodynamic input-output relationships was used for integrated testing of the V-8 engine and generator.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Publication Date: Dec 15, 1975
Onboard hydrogen generation for automobiles
Author(s): Houseman, J.; Cerini, D. J.
Problems concerning the use of hydrogen as a fuel for motor vehicles are related to the storage of the hydrogen onboard a vehicle. The feasibility is investigated to use an approach based on onboard hydrogen generation as a means to avoid these storage difficulties. Two major chemical processes can be used to produce hydrogen from liquid hydrocarbons and methanol. In steam reforming, the fuel reacts with water on a catalytic surface to produce a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. In partial oxidation, the fuel reacts with air, either on a catalytic surface or in a flame front, to yield a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. There are many trade-offs in onboard hydrogen generation, both in the choice of fuels as well as in the choice of a chemical process. Attention is given to these alternatives, the results of some experimental work in this area, and the combustion of various hydrogen-rich gases in an internal combustion engine.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Publication Date: JAN 1, 1976
and total energy consumption of a multicylinder piston engine running
on gasoline and a hydrogen-gasoline mixture
Author(s): Cassidy, J. F.
A multicylinder reciprocating engine was used to extend the efficient lean operating range of gasoline by adding hydrogen. Both bottled hydrogen and hydrogen produced by a research methanol steam reformer were used. These results were compared with results for all gasoline. A high-compression-ratio, displacement production engine was used. Apparent flame speed was used to describe the differences in emissions and performance. Therefore, engine emissions and performance, including apparent flame speed and energy lost to the cooling system and the exhaust gas, were measured over a range of equivalence ratios for each fuel. All emission levels decreased at the leaner conditions. Adding hydrogen significantly increased flame speed over all equivalence ratios.
Glenn Research Center
Publication Date: May 1, 1977
Feasibility demonstration of a road vehicle fueled with hydrogen-enriched
Author(s): Hoehn, F. W.; Dowdy, M. W.
Evaluation of the concept of using hydrogen-enriched gasoline in a modified internal combustion engine in order to make possible the burning of ultralean mixtures. The use of such an engine in a road vehicle demonstrated that the addition of small quantities of gaseous hydrogen to gasoline resulted in significant reductions in exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides as well as in thermal efficiency improvements of the engine performance.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Publication Date: JAN 1, 1974
Reduction of gaseous pollutant emissions from gas turbine combustors
using hydrogen-enriched jet fuel
Author(s): Clayton, R. M.
Recent progress in an evaluation of the applicability of the hydrogen enrichment concept to achieve ultralow gaseous pollutant emission from gas turbine combustion systems is described. The target emission indexes for the program are 1.0 for oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide, and 0.5 for unburned hydrocarbons. The basic concept utilizes premixed molecular hydrogen, conventional jet fuel, and air to depress the lean flammability limit of the mixed fuel. This is shown to permit very lean combustion with its low NOx production while simulataneously providing an increased flame stability margin with which to maintain low CO and HC emission. Experimental emission characteristics and selected analytical results are presented for a cylindrical research combustor designed for operation with inlet-air state conditions typical for a 30:1 compression ratio, high bypass ratio, turbofan commercial engine.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Publication Date: Oct 15, 1976
Hydrogen enrichment for low-emission jet combustion
Author(s): Clayton, R. M.
Simultaneous gaseous pollutant emission indexes (g pollutant/kg fuel) for a research combustor with inlet air at 120,900 N/sq m (11.9 atm) pressure and 727 K (849 F) temperature are as low as 1.0 for NOx and CO and 0.5 for unburned HC. Emissions data are presented for hydrogen/jet fuel (JP-5) mixes and for jet fuel only for premixed equivalence ratios from lean blowout to 0.65. Minimized emissions were achieved at an equivalence ratio of 0.38 using 10-12 mass percent hydrogen in the total fuel to depress the lean blowout limit. They were not achievable with jet fuel alone because of the onset of lean blowout at an equivalence ratio too high to reduce the NOx emission sufficiently.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Publication Date: JAN 1, 1978
Hydrogen - Primary or supplementary fuel for automotive engines
Author(s): Finegold, J. G.
Hydrogen, gasoline, and mixtures thereof were compared as fuels for lean-burn engines. Hydrogen for the mixed fuels tests was generated by partial oxidation of gasoline. Hydrogen combustion yielded the highest thermal efficiency at any NOx level. Gasoline yielded the second highest thermal efficiency for NOx levels greater than or approximately equal to 2 gm/mi. For lower NOx levels and high vehicle inertia weights, progressively more hydrogen supplementation was the second most efficient system. For vehicle inertia weights below 5000 lbm (2300 kg), the statutory NOx standard (0.4 gm/mi) could be met with 1 lb/hr (0.13 g/s) hydrogen supplementation.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Publication Date: Aug 1, 1976
Real-time data acquisition system assists engine test program
Author(s): Griffin, D. C., Jr.
The mixed-fuels program examined included two major phases: the development of a reformer that would provide an onboard source of hydrogen, and the testing of induction systems and mixed fuels on a conventional V8 engine to verify the concept and define the system's potential. The discussion is limited to the engine testing phase. The testing program is reviewed and the effectiveness of an IDAC data acquisition system in supporting the engine testing program is demonstrated. The data system's application is illustrated by examples.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Publication Date: JAN 1, 1975
Engine Performance and Emissions Near the Dilute Limit With Hydrogen Enrichment Using An On-Board Reforming Strategy
Document Number: 2003-01-1356
Date Published: March 2003
Ather A. Quader - Delphi Corp.
John E. Kirwan - Delphi Corp.
Malcolm J. Grieve - Delphi Corp.
This paper describes engine research - which supports our program to develop a gasoline engine management system (EMS) with an on-board reformer to provide near-zero tailpipe emissions. With this approach, the reformer converts gasoline (or another hydrocarbon-containing fuel) into reformate, containing hydrogen and CO. Reformate has very wide combustion limits to enable SI engine operation under very dilute conditions (either ultra-lean or with heavy EGR concentrations). In previous publications, we have presented engine dynamometer results showing very low emissions with bottled reformate. This paper shows the sensitivity of engine emissions and performance to operating near the dilute limit with H\d2 enrichment using both bottled reformate and an actual reformer prototype. It discusses the additional advantages of the system for supplemental heating to the passenger compartment and the vision of substantially increasing powertrain efficiency - by using a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) APU as the source of reformate.
Emission Control With Lean Operation Using Hydrogen-Supplemented Fuel
Document Number: 740187
Date Published: February 1974
R. F. Stebar - General Motors Corp.
F. B. Parks - General Motors Corp.
Hydrogen-supplemented fuel was investigated as a means of extending lean operating limits of gasoline engines for control of NO\dx. Single-cylinder engine tests with small additions of hydrogen to the fuel resulted in very low NO\dx and CO emissions for hydrogen-isooctane mixtures leaner than 0.55 equivalence ratio. Significant thermal efficiency improvements resulted from the extension beyond isooctane lean limit operation. However, HC emissions increased markedly at these lean conditions. A passenger car was modified to operate at 0.55-0.65 equivalence ratio with supplemental hydrogen. Vehicle emissions, as established by the 1975 Federal Exhaust Emissions Test, demonstrated the same trends as the single-cylinder engine tests. The success of the hydrogen-supplemented fuel approach will ultimately hinge on the development of both a means of controlling hydrocarbon emissions and a suitable hydrogen source on board the vehicle. Reported efforts to develop a satisfactory onboard hydrogen generator (gasoline reformer) appear restricted by fuel economy considerations.
Onboard Hydrogen Generation for Hydrogen Injection Into Internal Combustion Engines
Document Number: 810348
Date Published: February 1981
Krister Sj\arstr\arm - Dept. of Chemical Technology, The Royal Institute of Technol
S\arren Eriksson - Dept. of Chemical Technology, The Royal Institute of Technol
Gunnar Landqvist - Dept. of Chemical Technology, The Royal Institute of Technol
A system is described for onboard hydrogen generation in an internal combustion engine. The hydrogen is produced from methanol reacting with steam in recirculated exhaust gas over a Ni-catalyst. The energy for the reaction is supplied by the exhaust waste heat. The hydrogen is used to extend the lean limit of the gasoline in order to achieve higher efficiency and lower pollutant emissions. A theoretical study of the required amount of recirculated exhaust gas has been made and the energy efficiency of the reactor has been calculated. The produced and the required amount of hydrogen have also been calculated. A stationary test engine using the system is presented. The results show a potential for very low pollutant emissions with an increased energy efficiency compared to that of a conventional engine.
A Study of Combustion of Hydrogen-Enriched Gasoline in a Spark Ignition Engine
Document Number: 960603
Date Published: February 1996
Nicolae Apostolescu - University Politehnica of Bucharest
Radu Chiriac - University Politehnica of Bucharest
An investigation has been done on the influence of small amounts of hydrogen added to hydrocarbon-air mixtures on combustion characteristics. The effect of hydrogen addition to a hydrocarbon-air mixture was first approached in an experimental bomb to measure the laminar burning velocity and the shift of lean flammability limit. Experiments carried out with a single-cylinder four-stroke SI engine confirmed the possibility of expanding the combustion stability limit, which correlates well with the general trend of enhancing the rate of combustion. An increase of brake thermal efficiency has been obtained with a reduction of HC emissions; the NO\dx emissions were higher, except for very lean mixtures.
Performance and Fuel Consumption Estimation of a Hydrogen Enriched Gasoline Engine At Part-Load Operation
Document Number: 2002-01-2196
Date Published: July 2002
Gustavo Fontana - Universita di Cassino
Hydrogen and gasoline can be burned together in internal combustion engines in a wide range of mixtures. In fact, the addition of small hydrogen quantities increases the flame speed at all gasoline equivalence ratios, so the engine operation at very lean air-gasoline mixtures is possible. In this paper, the performance of a spark-ignition engine, fuelled by hydrogen-enriched gasoline, has been evaluated by using a numerical model. A hybrid combustion model for a dual fuel, according to two one-step overall reactions, has been implemented in the KIVA-3V code. The indicated mean pressure and the fuel consumption have been evaluated at part-load operating points of a S.I. engine designed for gasoline fuelling. In particular, the possibility of operating at wide-open throttle, varying the equivalence ratio of air-gasoline mixture at fixed quantities of the supplemented hydrogen, has been studied.
Influence of Hydrogen-Rich-Gas Addition on Combustion, Pollutant Formation and Efficiency of An Ic-SI Engine
Document Number: 2004-01-0972
Date Published: March 2004
Enrico Conte - ETH Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich
Konstantinos Boulouchos - ETH Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich
The addition of hydrogen-rich gas to gasoline in an Internal Combustion Engine seems to be particularly suitable to arrive at a near-zero emission Otto engine, which would be able to easily meet the most stringent regulations. In order to simulate the output of an on-board reformer that partially oxidizes gasoline, providing the hydrogen-rich gas, a bottled gas has been used. Detailed results of our measurements are here shown, such as fuel consumption, engine efficiency, exhaust emissions, analysis of the heat release rates and combustion duration, for both pure gasoline and blends with reformer gas. Additionally simulations have been performed to better understand the engine behavior and NOx formation.
Results show that: When running at \gl=1 and without EGR, addition of hydrogen-rich gas produces a significant shortening of the very first phase of combustion (inflammation phase) rather than of the remaining combustion process; Addition of hydrogen-rich gas allows to run the engine at extremely high \gl or EGR rate; When running at the highest possible \gl or EGR (limited by COV increase) the duration of all phases of combustion remains almost unaffected by the diluents; In all conditions a significant decrease of UHC and NOx emissions has been observed; In all conditions a significant increase of engine efficiency has been measured, which seems to be enough to compensate and overcome the losses due to the partial oxidation of Gasoline in the Reformer.
A Quasi-Dimensional Model for Estimating the Influence of Hydrogen- Rich Gas Addition on Turbulent Flame Speed and Flame Front Propagation in Ic-SI Engines
Document Number: 2005-01-0232
Date Published: April 2005
Enrico Conte - ETH - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
Konstantinos Boulouchos - ETH - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
Addition of hydrogen-rich gas to gasoline in internal combustion engines is gaining increasing interest, as it seems suitable to reach near-zero emission combustion, able to easily meet future stringent regulations. Bottled gas was used to simulate the output of an onboard reformer (21% H\d2, 24% CO, 55% N\d2). Measurements were carried out on a 4- stroke, 2-cylinder, 0.5-liter engine, with EGR, in order to calculate the heat release rate through a detailed two-zone model. A quasi-dimensional model of the flame was developed: it consists of a geometrical estimate of the flame surface, which is then coupled with the heat release rate. The turbulent flame speed can then be inferred. The model was then applied to blends of gasoline with hydrogen-rich gas, showing the effect on the flame speed and transition from laminar to turbulent combustion. Comparison between the quasi-dimensional model and the conventional Metgalchi-Keck + Damk\arhler model gave a general validation for gasoline operation and suggested a modification of the usual time-delay function for transition from laminar to turbulent flame. Results give new insight in previous findings from the heat release calculation: the effect of hydrogen-rich gas addition on flame speed is predominant in the early phase of the flame propagation, and the effect of the high curvature of the flame at the onset of combustion, compensated by the high mass diffusivity of hydrogen, is believed to be the physical reason to such behavior.
An Experimental Study on Combustion of Gasoline-Hydrogen Mixed Fuel
Document Number: 830897
Date Published: April 1989
Li Jing-ding - Zhejiang University, China
Lu Ying-ging - Zhejiang University, China
Du Tian-shen - Zhejiang University, China
The gasoline-air mixture added with a certain amount of hydrogen used as an engine fuel can extend the ignition limits, increase the rate of flame propagation and accelerate the combustion rate of the lean mixture; so that the fuel economy and emission characteristics of the engine are both improved herewith. The testing results of a single cylinder engine and a four cylinder automotive engine using such kind of dual fuel to improve their thermal efficiencies and fuel economy as well as to decrease their exhaust emissions are described in this paper.
Investigating Combustion Enhancement and Emissions Reduction With the Addition of 2hD2 + OD2 to a SI Engine
Document Number: 2003-32-0011
Date Published: September 2003
Paul Henshaw - Univ. of Windsor
Tina D'Andrea - Univ. of Windsor
David Ting - Univ. of Windsor
Andrzej Sobiesiak - Univ. of Windsor
This research involved studying the effects of adding small amounts of hydrogen or hydrogen and oxygen to a gasoline-fuelled spark ignition (SI) engine at part load. The hydrogen and oxygen were added in a ratio of 2:1, mimicking the addition of water electrolysis products. It was found that the effects of hydrogen addition (is equivalent to?2.8% of the fuel by mass, is equivalent to 60% by volume) decreased as the fuel/air equivalence ratio approached \gf = 1. When operating at \gf \mL 0.8, the torque, indicated mean effective pressure (imep) and NO emissions increased and cycle-to-cycle variation decreased with hydrogen addition. The improvements in engine performance and increase in NO emissions were related to a faster burn rate shown by a decrease in burn duration with the addition of hydrogen. Further, the addition of hydrogen only and hydrogen and oxygen in a ratio of 2:1 were compared. The extra oxygen had little effect on engine performance other than an increase in NO exhaust concentration /mA500 ppm. Under the conditions tested, the power necessary to generate the hydrogen on board through electrolysis was greater than what was gained from the engine.
Effects of Hydrogen Addition to SI Engine on Knock Behavior
Document Number: 2004-01-1851
Date Published: June 2004
Tomohiro Shinagawa - Toyota Motor Corporation
Takeshi Okumura - Toyota Motor Corporation
Shigeo Furuno - Toyota Motor Corporation
Kyoung-Oh Kim - Toyota Motor Corporation
In an SI engine, increasing the compression ratio could be one means of achieving higher thermal efficiency. However, when the compression ratio is increased, knock occurs and it prevents higher thermal efficiency. It is generally known that if the burning velocity is increased and the combustion period is shortened, the occurrence of knock may be suppressed. Here, hydrogen was added to the gasoline engine as a means of increasing the burning velocity. As a result, it has been confirmed that the occurrence of knock could be controlled to some extent, and knock could be completely avoided depending on the conditions for the distribution of hydrogen. Furthermore, it became clear that this result might have originated not only by the increase in the burning velocity but also by the hindrance of radical production by the hydrogen.
A Critical Review of Experimental Research on Hydrogen Fueled SI Engines
Document Number: 2006-01-0430
Date Published: April 2006
Sebastian Verhelst - Ghent University
Stefaan Verstraeten - Karel de Grote-Hogeschool
Roger Sierens - Ghent University
The literature on hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines is surprisingly extensive and papers have been published continuously from the 1930s up to the present day. Ghent University has been working on hydrogen engines for more than a decade. A summary of the most important findings, resulting from a literature study and the experimental work at Ghent University, is given in the present paper, to clarify some contradictory claims and ultimately to provide a comprehensive overview of the design features in which a dedicated hydrogen engine differs from traditionally fueled engines.
Topics that are discussed include abnormal combustion (backfire, pre-ignition and knock), mixture formation techniques (carbureted, port injected, direct injection) and load control strategies (power output versus NOx tradeoff). Attention is given to the most recent research by car manufacturers BMW and Ford, reporting hybrid control strategies (PFI+DI, lean burn + stoichiometric operation using EGR) to obtain power outputs equivalent to gasoline engines with extremely low emission levels. Recent results from experiments with EGR on a hydrogen engine at Ghent University are also given. Finally, a synthesis of hydrogen engine design features is given, that makes the most of hydrogen's advantages and counter its disadvantages. Areas requiring further research are highlighted.
Combustion Optimization in a Hydrogen-Enhanced Lean Burn SI Engine
Document Number: 2005-01-0251
Date Published: April 2005
Joshua Arlen Goldwitz
John B. Heywood - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
As part of ongoing research on hydrogen-enhanced lean burn SI engines, this paper details an experimental combustion system optimization program. Experiments focused on three key areas: the ignition system, incylinder charge motion produced by changes in the inlet ports, and uniformity of fuel-air mixture preparation. Hydrogen enhancement is obtained with a H\d2, CO, N\d2 mixture produced by a fuel reformer such as the plasmatron. The ignition system tests compared a standard inductive coil scheme against high-energy discharge systems. Charge motion experiments focused on the impact of different flow and turbulence patterns generated within the cylinder by restrictor plates at the intake port entrance as well as novel inlet flow modification cones. The in-cylinder fluid motion generated by each configuration was characterized using swirl and tumble flow benches. Mixture preparation tests compared a standard single-hole pintle port fuel injector against a fine atomizing 12-hole injector.
Results indicate that optimizations of the combustion system in conjunction with hydrogen-enhancement can extend the relative air/fuel ratio \gl at the lean limit of operation by roughly 25% compared against the baseline configuration. Nearly half of this improvement may be attributed to improvements in the combustion system. Furthermore, hydrogen-enhancement produces a nearly constant lean misfire limit improvement of \mA 0.20 - 0.25 \gl values, regardless of baseline combustion behavior. In contrast, the improvement of the amount of dilution with excess air at the point of peak engine efficiency decreases as engine operation becomes leaner, due to the inherently lengthening burn duration as \gl increases.
Advanced Emission and Fuel Economy Concept Using Combined Injection of Gasoline and Hydrogen in SI Engines
Document Number: 2004-01-1270
Date Published: March 2004
Thorsten Allgeier - Robert Bosch GmbH
Martin Helmut Klenk - Robert Bosch GmbH
Tilo Landenfeld - Robert Bosch GmbH
Enrico Conte - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology-Zurich
Konstantinos Boulouchos - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology-Zurich
Jan Czerwinski - HTI-Biel
In order to meet future requirements for emission reduction and fuel economy a variety of concepts is available for gasoline engines. In the recent past new pathways have been found using alternative fuels and fuel combinations to establish cost-optimized solutions. The presented concept for an SI engine consists of combined injection of gasoline and hydrogen. A hydrogen-enriched gas mixture is being injected additionally to gasoline into the engine manifold. The gas composition represents the output of an onboard gasoline reformer. The simulations and measurements show substantial benefits to improve the combustion process resulting in reduced cold-start and warm-up emissions and optimized part-load operation. The replacement of gasoline by hydrogen-rich gas during engine start leads to zero hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas. The mixed fuel operation enables high EGR rates up to 50% or extended lean-burn limits resulting in reduced pumping losses and increased effective engine efficiency. The set of measured data has been projected to the FTP driving cycle to allow a reasonable comparability to existing concepts with conventional exhaust gas after treatment. The compared data show promising results with a new system approach.
On-Board Hydrogen Generator for a Partial Hydrogen Injection Internal Combustion Engine
Document Number: 740600
Date Published: February 1974
John Houseman - California Institute of Technology
D. J. Cerini - California Institute of Technology
A compact onboard hydrogen generator has been developed for use with a hydrogen-enriched gasoline internal combustion engine. The unit uses gasoline and air in a partial oxidation reactor to produce a gaseous product containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide, minor amounts of methane, carbon dioxide and water, and nitrogen. A study of the theoretical equilibrium product composition has indicated an optimum operating point at an air/fuel ratio of 5.15, where a hydrogen/fuel mass ratio of 0.136 can be obtained under soot-free conditions. This is based on a gasoline with an atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio of 1.92. Both thermal and catalytic reactors have been tested. The thermal unit requires a reaction temperature of 2400\mDF to obtain 80% of the theoretical hydrogen yield. Soot formation tends to be a problem. The catalytic reactor yields close to theoretical yields at an operating temperature of 1800\mDF without any soot formation. A commercial nickel catalyst is used. A 100 h test with the catalytic unit showed no signs of performance degradation, using fully leaded Indolene 30. The calculated effect of hydrogen generator operating conditions on the fuel efficiency of a generator/engine combination is presented.
Onboard Generation of Hydrogen-Rich Gaseous Fuels - A Review
By: Y. Jamal and M.L. Wyszynski *
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Vol.19, No.7, pp. 557-572, 1994,
Received for publication 1 September 1993
School of Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering
University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Hydrogen has a good potential as an alternative fuel for spark ignition engines. It can extend the lean flammability limit of conventional fuels in order to achieve higher thermal efficiency and lower exhaust emissions. This paper reviews the use of hydrogen and hydrogen-enriched gasoline as a fuel for SI engines and the techniques used to generate hydrogen from liquid fuels such as gasoline and methanol, on-board the vehicle. The processes of thermal decomposition, steam reforming, partial oxidation and exhaust gas reforming are evaluated. A considerable amount of both theoretical and experimental work has been done in this field. Predictive and experimental results of the various investigators are reviewed and summarized.
Cleaning up Diesel and Automotive Exhaust with Hydrogen
By W. Thor Zollinger
Senior Mechanical Engineer
Alternative Fuels Group
Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory
Addition of hydrogen to the air intake of a combustion engine can dramatically cut the pollutants in the engine's exhaust. Reductions up to 50% have been observed in studies, some dating back into the 1950's. Hydrogen burns more fiercely, propagating the flame front faster, increasing the efficiency of combustion, and burning the fuel more completely. In the Hydrogen Generator, distilled water is converted by electrolysis into hydrogen and oxygen gas, which is then pulled into the engine through the air intake. This uses some of the engine's power, but the return from increased efficiency in a lot of cases is more than the cost of the electricity. Fuel efficiency can increase, as stated in both customer letters and formal test results. The main benefit, however, is a reduction in exhaust emissions, which is fast becoming more important to independent truckers. Several states, California and New Jersey for example, are heavily fining truckers for smoky exhaust, making a device like this invaluable.
EMISSIONS REDUCTION THROUGH HYDROGEN ENRICHMENT
Jean J. Botti, M. James Grieve, Carlton
Delphi Corporation, USA
Hydrogen has unique properties in dilute combustion and catalytic reactions compared to other fuels. While the long-term vision for production and use of renewable hydrogen in transportation is theoretically attractive, significant economic and technical barriers remain in all areas. This paper will focus on two technologies which Delphi is developing to allow hydrogen to be produced and used on-board vehicles to capture the efficiency and emission control benefits of hydrogen in the short to mid-term. These technologies are: On-board reforming for emission control with internal combustion engines (ICE) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for auxiliary power, heat and hydrogen generation.
INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF HYDROGEN ADDITION ON PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF DIESEL ENGINE
TECHNICAL PAPER FOR STUDENTS AND YOUNG ENGINEERS
- FISITA WORLD AUTOMOTIVE CONGRESS, BARCELONA 2004 -
Place / Date: Rousse, 11/02/2004
Author(s): Mihaylov Milen* Barzev Kiril
University of Rousse, Bulgaria
Experiments were carried out to evaluate the influence of the addition of hydrogen oxygen mixture (obtained from electrochemically decomposed water) to the inlet air of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Addition of hydrogen to the intake or delivery into the cylinder of diesel engine can improve combustion process due to superior combustion characteristics of hydrogen in comparison to conventional diesel fuels. Presented paper describes the dynamometer test results of a study where a small amount of hydrogen-oxygen mixture, produced by hydrogen-oxygen generator is added to the intake of a diesel engine.
Application of Hydrogen Assisted Lean Operation to Natural Gas-Fueled Reciprocating Engines (HALO) Final Scientific/Technical Report
Cooperative Agreement No.
15 Acorn Park
Two key challenges facing Natural Gas Engines used for cogeneration purposes are spark plug life and high NOx emissions. Using Hydrogen Assisted Lean Operation (HALO), these two keys issues are simultaneously addressed. HALO operation, as demonstrated in this project, allows stable engine operation to be achieved at ultra-lean (relative air/fuel ratios of 2) conditions, which virtually eliminates NOx production. NOx values of 10 ppm (0.07 g/bhp-hr NO) for 8% (LHV H2/LHV CH4) supplementation at an exhaust O2 level of 10% were demonstrated, which is a 98% NOx emissions reduction compared to the leanest unsupplemented operating condition. Spark ignition energy reduction (which will increase ignition system life) was carried out at an oxygen level of 9 %, leading to a NOx emission level of 28ppm (0.13 g/bhp-hr NO). The spark ignition energy reduction testing found that spark energy could be reduced 22% (from 151 mJ supplied to the coil) with 13% (LHV H2/LHV CH4) hydrogen supplementation, and even further reduced 27% with 17% hydrogen supplementation, with no reportable effect on NOx emissions for these conditions and with stable engine torque output. Another important result is that the combustion duration was shown to be only a function of hydrogen supplementation, not a function of ignition energy (until the ignitability limit was reached). The next logical step leading from these promising results is to see how much the spark energy reduction translates into increase in spark plug life, which may be accomplished by durability testing.
Hydrogen as an auxiliary fuel in compression-ignition engines
Gerrish, Harold C - Foster, Hampton H
National Advisory Committee For Aeronautics-report-535
An investigation was made to determine whether a sufficient amount of hydrogen could be efficiently burned in a compression-ignition engine to compensate for the increase of lift of an airship due to the consumption of the fuel oil. The performance of a single-cylinder four-stroke-cycle compression-ignition engine operating on fuel oil alone was compared with its performance when various quantities of hydrogen were inducted with the inlet air. Engine-performance data, indicator cards, and exhaust-gas samples were obtained for each change in engine-operating conditions.
Lean-Burn Characteristics of a Gasoline Engine Enriched With Hydrogen From a Plasmatron Fuel Reformer
Document Number: 2003-01-0630
Date Published: March 2003
Edward J. Tully
John B. Heywood - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
When hydrogen is added to a gasoline-fueled spark ignition engine the lean limit of the engine can be extended. Lean-running engines are inherently more efficient and have the potential for significantly lower NOx emissions. In the engine concept examined here, supplemental hydrogen is generated on-board the vehicle by diverting a fraction of the gasoline to a plasmatron where a partial oxidation reaction is initiated with an electrical discharge, producing a plasmatron gas containing primarily hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen.
Two different gas mixtures were used to simulate the plasmatron output. An ideal plasmatron gas (H\d2 , CO, and N\d2) was used to represent the output of the theoretically best plasmatron. A typical plasmatron gas (H\d2, CO, N\d2, and CO\d2) was used to represent the current output of the plasmatron. A series of hydrogen addition experiments were also performed to quantify the impact of the non-hydrogen components in the plasmatron gas. Various amounts of plasmatron gas were used, ranging from the equivalent of 10%-30% of the gasoline being reformed in the plasmatron.
All of the data was compared to a baseline case of the engine operating stoichiometrically on gasoline alone. It was found that the peak net indicated fuel conversion efficiency of the system was increased 12% over the baseline case. In addition, at this peak efficiency point the engine out NOx emissions decreased by 94% (165 ppm versus 2800 ppm) while the hydrocarbon emissions decreased by 6%.
In the data analysis, the relative air/fuel ratio was found to be an inadequate measure of mixture dilution. Two dilution parameters were defined and used. The Volumetric Dilution Parameter, VDP, represents the heating value per unit volume of the air/fuel mixture. Pumping work reductions due to mixture dilution correlate with VDP. The Thermal Dilution Parameter, TDP, represents the heating value per unit heat capacity of the air/fuel mixture. Combustion and emissions parameters correlate with TDP.
Experimental Evaluation of SI Engine Operation Supplemented By Hydrogen Rich Gas From a Compact Plasma Boosted Reformer
Document Number: 2000-01-2206
Date Published: June 2000
Johney Boyd Green - Oak Ridge National Lab.
Leslie Bromberg - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
D. R. Cohn - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
A. Rabinovich - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Norberto Domingo - Oak Ridge National Lab.
John M. Storey - Oak Ridge National Lab.
Robert M. Wagner
Jeffrey S Armfield - Oak Ridge National Lab.
It is well known that hydrogen addition to spark-ignited (SI) engines can reduce exhaust emissions and increase efficiency. Micro plasmatron fuel converters can be used for onboard generation of hydrogen-rich gas by partial oxidation of a wide range of fuels. These plasma-boosted microreformers are compact, rugged, and provide rapid response. With hydrogen supplement to the main fuel, SI engines can run very lean resulting in a large reduction in nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions relative to stoichiometric combustion without a catalytic converter. This paper presents experimental results from a microplasmatron fuel converter operating under variable oxygen to carbon ratios. Tests have also been carried out to evaluate the effect of the addition of a microplasmatron fuel converter generated gas in a 1995 2.3-L four- cylinder SI production engine. The tests were performed with and without hydrogen-rich gas produced by the plasma boosted fuel converter with gasoline. A one hundred fold reduction in NOx due to very lean operation was obtained under certain conditions. An advantage of onboard plasma- boosted generation of hydrogen-rich gas is that it is used only when required and can be readily turned on and off. Substantial NOx reduction should also be obtainable by heavy exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) facilitated by use of hydrogen-rich gas with stoichiometric operation.
Module 3: Hydrogen Use In Internal Combustion Engines
U.S. Department of Energy - Energy Efficiency
and Renewable Energy
Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program – Technology Validation
Hydrogen Fuel Cell Engines and Related Technologies Course Manual
Produced by College of the Desert and SunLine Transit Agency with funding from the U.S. Federal Transit Administration,
This course manual features technical information on the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel. It covers hydrogen properties, use, and safety as well as fuel cell technologies, systems, engine design, safety, and maintenance. It also presents the different types of fuel cells and hybrid electric vehicles. Based on Phase 3 and 4 Ballard fuel cell buses, the system descriptions and maintenance procedures focus on proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells for heavy-duty transit applications. The PEM fuel cell engine is the most promising for automotive applications; its transit application is the most advanced.
Mirror: http://burnhydrox.com/documents/Driving characteristics of a motorcycle fuelled with hydrogen rich gas.pdf
Driving characteristics of a motorcycle fuelled with hydrogen-rich gas produced by an onboard plasma reformer
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Kun Shan University,
No. 949, Da-Wan Road, Yang-Kung City, Taiwan County, Taiwan 710, Taiwan
Accepted 26 September 2008
The driving performance and emission characteristics of a 125 cc motorcycle equipped with an onboard plasma reformer for producing hydrogen-rich gas were investigated. Butane with suitable air flow rate was induced into the plasma reformer to produce hydrogen-rich gas, which was used as supplementary fuel for the internal combustion engine. The motorcycle was run under steady and transient conditions on a chassis dynamometer to assess the driving performance and exhaust emissions. Prior to the driving, the operation parameters of the plasma reformer were optimized in a series of tests and the results were an O2/C ratio of 0.55 and a butane supply rate of 1.16 L/min. It was shown that under a constant speed of 40 km/h, with the CO and HC emissions similar to that of the original engine, the NOx emission was found to be improved by 56.8%. During transient driving condition, the improvement of 16%–41% in NOx concentration was achieved by adding hydrogen-rich gas. The emissions of the motorcycle were also analyzed on a chassis dynamometer tracing an ECE-40 driving pattern. The NOx emission was improved by 34% as was the HC emission by 4.08%, although the CO emission was increased. Simultaneously, the acceleration characteristics of the vehicle were tested, and were similar under both fuelling systems.
Effect of Hydrogen Enriched Hydrocarbon Combustion on Emissions and Performance
Department of Biological and Agricultural
University of Idaho
The principle of this mode of combustion is to add a percentage of hydrogen gas to the combustion reactions of either compression or spark ignition engines. The addition of hydrogen has been shown to decrease the formation of NOx, CO and unburned hydrocarbons. Studies have shown that added hydrogen in percentages as low as 5-10% percent of the hydrocarbon fuel can reduce that hydrocarbon fuel consumption. The theory behind this concept is that the addition of hydrogen can extend the lean operation limit, improve the lean burn ability, and decrease burn duration. To apply this method to an engine a source of hydrogen is needed. At this time the simplest option would be to carry a tank of hydrogen. Research is being conducted to allow the hydrogen to be reformed from the vehicles hydrocarbon fuel supply or produce hydrogen from electrolysis of water. In the future, better methods could be developed for storing hydrogen in the vehicle or production of hydrogen on-board the vehicle.
Experimental Investigation of Hydrogen Fuel Injection in DI Dual Fuel Diesel Engine
Document Number: 2007-01-1465
Date Published: April 2007
N Saravanan - College of Engrg, Guindy, Anna Univ., Chennai
G. Nagarajan - College of Engrg, Guindy, Anna Univ., Chennai
C. Dhanasekaran - PG Scholars, College of Engrg, Guindy, Anna Univ., Chennai
K M Kalaiselvan - PG Scholars, College of Engrg, Guindy, Anna Univ., Chennai
Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuel in the near future to solve greenhouse problem and to save conventional fuels. In this study, a Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine was tested for its performance and emissions in dual-fuel (Hydrogen/Diesel) mode operation. Hydrogen was injected into the intake port along with air, while diesel was injected directly inside the cylinder. Hydrogen injection timing and injection duration were varied for a wider range with constant injection timing of 23ÃƒÆ’Ã†â€™ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…Â¡ÃƒÆ’Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚Â° Before Injection Top Dead Centre (BITDC) for diesel fuel. When hydrogen is used as a fuel along with diesel, emissions of Hydro Carbon (HC), Carbon monoxide (CO) and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOX) decrease without exhausting more amount of smoke. The maximum brake thermal efficiency obtained is about 30 % at full load for the optimized injection timing of 5ÃƒÆ’Ã†â€™ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…Â¡ÃƒÆ’Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚Â° After Gas Exchange Top Dead Centre (AGTDC) and for an injection duration of 90ÃƒÆ’Ã†â€™ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…Â¡ÃƒÆ’Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚Â° crank angle. The NOX emission tends to reduce to a lower value of 888 parts per million (ppm) at full load condition for the optimized injection timing of 5ÃƒÆ’Ã†â€™ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…Â¡ÃƒÆ’Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚Â° AGTDC and with an injection duration of 90ÃƒÆ’Ã†â€™ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…Â¡ÃƒÆ’Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚Â° compared to neat diesel fuel operation.
Investigation of turbulent combustion in SI-homogeneous charge engines using hydrogen-gasoline mixtures
Author: Conte Enrico
Hydrogen appears to be one of the most promising long-term alternative fuels. Its major combustion product is water, it is easily ignited, and it has wide flammability limits. Nevertheless, some important issues arise, such as on-board storage, safety concern, pre-ignition and back-flash, combustion control, emission of NOx, power density for transport applications and some more, not infrastructure for distribution. In the mid-term time frame, the addition of small quantities of hydrogen to gasoline appears to be a good opportunity to combine the major advantages given by both fuels, avoiding many problems, especially if an hydrogen-rich gas is produced on-board directly from gasoline by means of a reformer. Addition of hydrogen-rich gas to gasoline has recently gained interest in the industrial and academic community in terms of the anticipated potential of these fuel mixtures to improve part-load efficiency and cold start pollutant emissions in internal combustion engines. Of particular relevance in this context is the dependence of unsteady turbulent flame propagation speed, EGR tolerance, lean limit extension, NOx formation and wall quenching distance on varying percentage content of H2 in the fuel mixture.
The research links were very kindly provided and mirrored by BurnHydrox.com
More Supporting Documentation:
1. NASA: Hydrogen and Gasoline Mix Increases Mileage.
2. Department of Transportation: Guidelines For Use Of Hydrogen Fuel In Commercial Vehicles - see page 20 - "Onboard electrolyzers are used with hydrogen injection systems for diesel engines (see Section 3.5). In this case, only a small amount of hydrogen and oxygen are produced to supplement, not replace, the diesel fuel used in the engine. The electricity to operate the electrolyzer is typically supplied by the engine's alternator or 12/24-VDC electrical system."
3. Related articles by Hydro Kevin (Kevin Kantola from Redlands, California) Government Says Hydrogen Fuel Injection Is Viable Technology and U. S. DOT Supports Hydrogen Injection - Part 2
4. NASA in their Technical Note Report E-9105 (NASA-TN-D-8487) published May 1, 1977:
This report is titled "Emissions And Total Energy Consumption Of A Multicylinder Piston Engine Running On Gasoline And A Hydrogen-Gasoline Mixture", and NASA's abstract (in their archives today) says: "A multicylinder reciprocating engine was used to extend the efficient lean operating range of gasoline by adding hydrogen. Both bottled hydrogen and hydrogen produced by a research methanol steam reformer were used. These results were compared with results for all gasoline. A high-compression-ratio, displacement production engine was used. Apparent flame speed was used to describe the differences in emissions and performance. Therefore, engine emissions and performance, including apparent flame speed and energy lost to the cooling system and the exhaust gas, were measured over a range of equivalence ratios for each fuel. All emission levels decreased at the leaner conditions. Adding hydrogen significantly increased flame speed over all equivalence ratios."
This research focused on using hydrogen as a supplemental fuel to gasoline to a 1969 production engine. The research demonstrated that the higher flame speed of hydrogen was responsible for being able to extend the efficient lean operating range of a gasoline engine:
"Lean-mixture-ratio combustion in internal-combustion engines has the potential of producing low emissions and higher thermal efficiency for several reasons. First, excess oxygen in the charge further oxidizes unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Second, excess oxygen lowers the peak combustion temperatures, which inhibits the formation of oxides of nitrogen. Third, the lower combustion temperatures increase the mixture specific heat ratio by decreasing the net dissociation losses. Fourth, as the specific heat ratio increases, the cycle thermal efficiency also increases, which gives the potential for better fuel economy."
"Adding hydrogen to gasoline significantly increased flame speed and allows for a leaner air-fuel ratio. All emissions levels decreased at these leaner conditions....significantly increased flame speed and allows for a leaner air/fuel ratio. All emissions levels decreased at these leaner conditions."
"The results were used to explain the advantages of adding hydrogen to gasoline as a method of extending the lean operating range. The minimum-energy-consumption equivalence ratio was extended to leaner conditions by adding hydrogen, although the minimum energy consumption did not change. All emission levels decreased at the leaner conditions. Also, adding hydrogen significantly increased flame speed over all equivalence ratios."
The official document may be downloaded from NASA Archives (document ID 19770016170): http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19770016170_1977016170.pdf
5. The Society of Automotive Engineers of Troy, Michigan (="Detroit") This is a huge organization with over 121,000 members! The list below shows a collection of references found in their official publications of the past 35 years (today it is published online http://www.sae.org/mags/aei/) - from which it is obvious that THEY HAVE KNOWN all about it [source: Google - this info appears on many websites and I couldn't tell who's the original compiler]:
Publication #740187, February 1974: Adding hydrogen to gasoline resulted in significant efficiency improvements due to the extension of the lean operating limit.
Publication #740600, February 1974: A compact onboard hydrogen generator has been developed for use with a hydrogen-enriched gasoline internal combustion engine.
Publication #810348, February 1981: Adding hydrogen to gasoline showed a potential for very low pollutant emissions with increased energy efficiency.
Publication #830897, April 1989: Adding hydrogen to gasoline produces improvements in engine efficiency and emissions due to accelerated flame speed and combustion rate.
Publication #960603, February 1996: Adding hydrogen to gasoline produces improvements in engine efficiency and emissions, due to accelerated combustion.
Publication #2000-01-2206, June 2000: Adding hydrogen to gasoline can reduce exhaust emissions and increase efficiency. A large reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions can be achieved without a catalytic converter due to very lean operation under certain conditions.
Publication #2002-01-2196, July 2002: Adding hydrogen to gasoline increases the flame speed at all gasoline air/fuel ratios, so engine operation at very lean mixtures is possible.
Publication #2003-01-0630, March 2003: Adding hydrogen to gasoline extended the lean limit of engine operation, resulting in greater efficiency and reduced emissions, both hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides.
Publication #2003-32-0011, September 2003: Adding hydrogen to gasoline resulted in improved engine.
Publication #2004-01-0972, March 2004: Adding hydrogen to gasoline results in lower emissions and a significant increase in engine efficiency.
Publication #2004-01-1270, March 2004: Adding hydrogen to gasoline produces improvements in engine efficiency and emissions.
Publication #2004-01-1851, June 2004: Adding hydrogen to gasoline reduced knock due to accelerated fuel burn and shortened combustion period.
Publication #2005-01-0232, April 2005: Adding hydrogen to gasoline produces lower emissions due to increased flame speed and resultant accelerated fuel burn.
Publication #2005-01-0251, April 2005: Adding hydrogen to gasoline can extend the lean limits of the air/fuel ratio.
6. Some of the many Registered Patents from the USA, UK and Australia:
1918 - This is the oldest hydrogen-on-demand known (to me) patent FOR VEHICLE USE! Note the use of the term "Hydro-Oxygen Generators" used at the beginning of page 2 to describe the entire water-fuel industry. American inventor Charles H. Frazer filed this patent, number 1,262,034 on April 18, 1916 (the final approval was granted by the U.S. Patent Office 2 years later, on April 9, 1918. He described the purpose of the device to be: "In this manner, a very low grade fuel may be used and by properly setting the valves, the proper supply of gases may be added to render the fuel thoroughly combustible."
1930 - Rudolf Erren - Erren engine - GB patent GB364180 - Improvements in and relating to internal combustion engines using a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen as fuel.
1939 - Rudolf Erren - Erren engine - US patent 2,183,674 - Internal combustion engine using hydrogen as fuel.
1980 - Charles T. Weber - U.S. Patent 4,344,831 "Apparatus for the Generation of Gaseous Fuel".
2005 - Australian Patent AU-2005100722-A4 - granted by the Australian Patent Office to Robert Michael Roberts and Chau Kin Nam. Some relate it to the Joe Cell. In part, it looks similar to the devices shown experimented by Stanley Meyer.
7. Additional Patents: There are at least 40 patents in the last few decades alone, we are collecting the patents and will add them here.
8. California Environmental Engineering (CEE) "CEE feels that the result of this test verifies that this technology is a viable source for reducing emissions and fuel consumption on large diesel engines." ORIGINAL NEEDED email me
9. The American Hydrogen Association Test Lab
"Emissions test results indicate that a decrease of toxic emissions was realized." Zero emissions were observed on CO (carbon oxide). ORIGINAL NEEDED email me
10. Additional data based on http://en.allexperts.com/e/h/hy/hydrogen_fuel_injection.htm and other sources including http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_fuel_injection - ORIGINAL DUCUMENTS NEEDED:
In 1974 John Houseman and D.J. Cerini of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, produced a report for the Society of Automotive Engineers titled "On-Board Hydrogen Generator for a Partial Hydrogen Injection Internal Combustion Engine" (available at http://www.osti.gov/energycitations/product.biblio.jsp?osti_id=5206481 and http://www.sae.org/technical/papers/740600). F.W. Hoehn and M.W. Dowy, also of the Jet Propulsion Lab, prepared a report for the 9th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (held August 26-30, 1974 in San Francisco), titled "Feasibility Demonstration of a Road Vehicle Fueled with Hydrogen Enriched Gasoline." (This research utilized onboard storage tanks to supply the hydrogen combustion enhancement.)
In 1993, researchers Y. Jamal and M.L.Wyszynski of the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom, released a review titled "Onboard Generation of Hydrogen-Rich Gaseous Fuels - a Review" in which they concluded: (3.) Hydrogen supplementation of gasoline combustion has been shown to yield reduction in fuel consumption. (4.) Hydrogen-rich gaseous fuels can be burned under ultra lean conditions to yield very low NOx emissions without running into lean flammability limit problems. and (5.) The lean burning conditions give possibilities for very low CO emissions.
In 1995, newer investigations have highlighted the potential for pollutant reduction. Research performed by scientists at the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom, released a study at the HYPOTHESIS Conference at the University of Cassino, Italy in which it was presented that "hydrogen, when used as a fractional additive at extreme lean engine operation, yields benefits in improved combustion stability and reduced nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbon emissions."
In 1997, similar results have been presented by a team of scientists representing the Department of Energy Engineering, Zhejiang University, China, at an international conference held by the University of Calgary. Practical tests have been performed by California Environmental Engineering (CEE), The American Hydrogen Association Test Lab and Corrections Canada in which reduction in toxic exhaust emissions and fuel consumption were realized.
Here are the links to the actual articles.
Removed - Advertising Standards Authority Investigation A11-170545/SR
Removed - Advertising Standards Authority Investigation A11-170545/SR
N.B. The ASA (Advertising Standards Authority) have decided, again, to restrict customers access to information. I have a question for Sally Ramsden, "How much fuel would you save if you did not need petrol at all?"
It seems clear that Millbrook test centre is totally skint and the ASA want small companies and researchers to pay them to test stuff we tested years ago.
We had nothing to prove to anyone when we first tested our prototypes, after seeing positive results it seemed worthwhile pursuing an actual product. If we were relying on the income generated from Waterboost sales to eat, pay staff and feed the world, then we may have an incentive to exaggerate claims, but it is a small organisation that reinvests into Water Fuel and Energy Harvesting Research.